Petition by the Laity for ONE American Orthodox Church

With all due respect to our bishops, we laity find the present divisions within our beloved Orthodox Church to be intolerable. Saint Paul admonished the early Church, “Make every effort to keep the unity of the Spirit through the bond of peace” (Ephesians 4:3). Contrary to our Lord’s will (e.g., Mark 9:50; John 17:22-23), it seems that some of our hierarchs fail to make progress toward the oneness of the Church a sufficiently high priority. Therefore, it falls upon us laity, as well as the clergy who wish to join their voices with ours, to make our heartfelt concerns heard. It is our hope that if the sheep bleat loudly enough, then they they will get our shepherds’ attention and care (John 21:16). For the sake of our Christian witness to the world, we humbly but urgently request that the following actions be taken with all due expediency in order to restore unity to the Orthodox Church in our nation and around the world:

World Orthodox Unity

1. The patriarchates of Moscow and Constantinople must overcome their differences and be reconciled to each other. This requires a swift resolution to the non-canonical and contentious situation in Ukraine, where there are two national Orthodox Churches: the traditional Ukrainian Orthodox Church (UOC) and the new Orthodox Church of Ukraine (OCU). If this devastating state of affairs and the consequent rift in the Orthodox Church cannot be resolved in a timely manner through diplomatic channels between the two patriarchates, then it should be resolved by the decision of a pan-orthodox council.

2. A pan-orthodox council should be convened as soon as possible with participation by all Orthodox jurisdictions without exception. The purpose of this council would be to resolve all of the following longstanding issues that contribute to disharmony within the Orthodox Church:

(a) It must be clarified as to what extent the Patriarchate of Constantinople has authority to make decisions that affect the worldwide Orthodox Church.

(b) The confusing division within the Orthodox Church caused by disparate observance of the two ecclesiastical calendars must be resolved.

(c) In consideration of the fact that the Oriental Orthodox Churches and the Orthodox Churches have come to a mutually agreeable resolution of their past theological differences, the Oriental Orthodox should be welcomed into full eucharistic communion with the Orthodox Church.

(d) It must be resolved what are, and what are not, appropriate ecumenical relationships with non-Orthodox Christian institutions and with organizations of other creeds. Ecumenical overtures should be made first to the ecclesial bodies which have the closest theological and practical affinity with the Orthodox.

American Orthodox Unity

3. The Assembly of Orthodox Canonical Bishops should formulate a concrete plan with an approximate timeline that specifies steps that will be taken toward establishing a unified American Orthodox Church. This plan should contain the following resolutions regarding longstanding issues that have caused disharmony between the Orthodox jurisdictions in America:

(a) There must be an end to the current non-canonical situation in which more than one ruling bishop presides over a specific municipal area and its environs. There should no longer be any overlapping jurisdictions.

(b) All parish and monastery worship services (including sermons, Bible readings, and hymns) must be served in English alone, or in the vernacular tongue of the local community. Services may be provided in a foreign language only as a rare exception.

(c) There should be uniform and official service books published in English for every Orthodox parish and monastery in America, according to the rite used.

(d) The Western Rite should be a fully-accepted alternative to the Byzantine Rite.

(e) Ethnic designations (e.g., “Greek,” “Russian,” “Antiochian,” etc.) must be removed from the names of Orthodox parishes and monasteries operating in America. Ethnic designations may be retained on legal documents if deemed unavoidable.

(f) Parochial and diocesan budgets should no longer have line-item expenses for ethnic cultural activities and language instruction. Parishioners may contribute separately to those activities, if they so desire.

(g) Western European saints from before the time of the 1054 schism, and American saints should and be given the same consideration for commemoration as are the saints from traditionally Orthodox lands.

The Editors

(All readers who would like to sign the petition are urged to “like” and comment below.)

St. Bart’s Redux

 

GOARCH’s Abp. Elpidophoros with St. Bart’s rector, Bp. Dean E. Wolfe

As if to add insult to injury, Abp. Elpidophoros returned on July 3 to St. Bartholomew’s Episcopal Church on Park Avenue. This is the same “St. Bart’s” where the archbishop and his entourage had served the Divine Liturgy to commemorate the thirtieth anniversary of Patriarch Bartholomew’s reign from Istanbul…err…Constantinople. At that occasion on June 11, the archbishop in his non-homily lavished obsequious praise upon his boss saying, “He is a living Apostle of love, peace and reconciliation”. Yeah, tell that to Metropolitan Onuphry and the faithful in the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, who have endured ecclesiastical schism, theft of church properties and sometimes even physical violence. That mayhem has been caused indirectly by Pat. Bartholomew’s meddling in Ukrainian politics. Auwe!, as the Hawaiians say. “No!”

This time, Abp. Elpidophoros was at St. Bart’s in a more personal capacity to visit with their rector, Bp. Dean E. Wolfe. The purple shirt you see is the indication of episcopal ordination. Wolfe used to be the bishop ordinary of the Episcopal Diocese of Kansas for the thirteen years from 2004 to 2017. Like many TEC dioceses around the country, it is a little liberal oasis in a conservative state. Bp. Wolfe cut a notch in his belt when “he officiated (at) the first authorized Episcopal same-sex marriage in the diocese.” (St. Bart’s website) Of course, there is no such thing. St. Bart’s is a large congregation fully a quarter the size of the whole rural Diocese of Kansas. Wolfe must feel quite at home at that megachurch, where they are actively queering midtown Manhattan.

Regarding the tete a tete, the archbishop said “Ecumenical dialogue and collaborations are vital witnesses to Christ’s teaching and ministry.” We all want unity amongst Christians, but true ecumenism will never compromise the Truth of the Faith in order to make nice with heretics. The stricter kind will seek the return of schismatics to the Orthodox Church. It almost sounds unAmerican to say that, but it’s the inconvenient truth. By revisiting St. Bart’s, the archbishop emphasized his desire to grow closer to the Episcopal Church despite the repugnance of TEC’s promotion of the LGBTQ+ whatever-in-hell-turns-you-on agenda. That is the impression that one is left with.

Certainly a seasoned politician like Abp. Elpidophoros knows well that repeat association with heretics like Bp. Wolfe telegraphs a tacit agreement with their teachings. That, in turn, implies an abandonment of the Orthodox teaching that stands in stark contrast to the heresy. God forbid. We cannot but conclude that the archbishop is sending the wrong message to his faithful followers. Please, we don’t need this, Your Eminence – not after the unprecedented destabilization caused by the events of the last year and a half. Not now.

This author is – used to be – a cradle Episcopalian and Anglican priest who felt the need to leave his beloved denomination because it had abandoned Christian morality. It was not without having first made sacrifices that I renounced my ordination and submitted to (re)baptism as a layman in the Orthodox Church. Imagine my disappointment to see our venerable archbishop flirting in his official capacity with the very Episcopalian heretics with whom I felt the need to part company. Auwe!

The Archbishop’s Exhortation for the Fourth of July

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His Eminence Abp. Elpidophoros had his priests read an encyclical (see below) from their ambos this Independence Day morning. Our hierarch said that we should “pause and give thanks for our American democracy.” Okay, it’s more precisely a republic, but he’s right; we should give thanks for our nation, especially to our Founding Fathers who gave birth to it 245 years ago.

But then the archbishop goes negative in the third sentence, suggesting we should be ashamed of our country for which we were just giving thanks.

“Like every form of governing the πόλις (polis) it will always be less than perfect, for the human beings who conduct the affairs of state and the rule of law are imperfect as well. But let us rejoice that what we have witnessed in our land – from coast to coast – is a willingness to confront the injustices of past and present, and to find common ground to address them.”

That’s intentionally vague wording that couches a subtle implication. Judging from the archbishop’s participation in the Black Lives Matter march in New York last summer, and his congenitally liberal way of thinking, one must assume that he is talking about the past injustices of chattel slavery and the oppression of African Americans after their emancipation. Are the actions that the bishop says have shown a “willingness to confront the injustices” the protests and riots and general mayhem that “we have witnessed” in our major cities after the murder of George Floyd? Although his wording is ambiguous, I’m suspicious. I hope I’m wrong, but that’s what it sounds like to me. Does the venerable archbishop then support the instruction of Critical Race Theory in our children’s schools to undo past wrongs committed? Will anti-racist racism solve the problem that the archbishop cites obliquely? God forbid. If that happens, we will have indoctrinated the next generation and the country will never recover from that.

Back to the encyclical:

“Grateful for the religious freedom guaranteed by the Bill of Rights…” Stop right there. I don’t know whether it was the archbishop or who it was who was responsible for shutting down the churches last year, but everything has changed from the easy-going days of 2019. At the beginning of the pandemic, no one knew how bad the number and degree of sicknesses might become. The churches may have been justified at first to take all the precautions mandated by the various levels of government and the health organizations.

However, from our perspective a year and half later, knowing as we now do that Covid-19 isn’t nearly as deadly as Ebola, and suspecting that the case numbers have been inflated for political reasons, it’s not difficult to see that the net effect of our obedience to the secular governments has been abject capitulation. “Religious freedom”, you say? If the rest of the parishes behaved as my parish did, then the Greek Archdiocese followed the protocols to a “T” and lost a good portion of their religious freedom while they were at it. Our parish is open again, and many communicants have come back, but many others still have not returned to worship in person. Are they happy to forgo communion, to stay at home and watch the Divine Liturgy from their living room sofas? Don’t they know that they who do not eat His flesh and drink His blood have no life in them? (John 6:53) God forbid again.

A year and a half ago, we got spooked and gave up our freedom as Americans to gather and worship without hardly a fight. We have retreated to a position of submission from which it may take another crisis and the will to fight in order to advance. I am left wondering whether the Church will have the fortitude to stand up for Christ when Caesar puts the screws to us again. This is our God-given religious freedom that we are talking about, and we have handed over a significant portion of it to the government. That does not bode well for the Church, particularly the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese.

“There must be the same rights for all Americans, or there is no safety of rights for any American.” Well put. May every American who studies and works to support himself, to be a good citizen and contribute to the greater good of our society enjoy those rights. But, may every American who fails to do those things, but rather willfully contributes in his small way to the downfall of our Church or our society contemplate whether he deserves those rights at all. As the archbishop says, this is “‘the land of the free and the home of the brave’, which has been defended by the sacrifice of so many.” This perilous time is our time to struggle to protect our American nation and our Orthodox Church from any forces that would tear them down.

The body of the encyclical:

My Beloved Brothers and Sisters in Christ,
Αἰνεῖτε τὸν Κύριον πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, ἐπαινέσατε Αὐτὸν πάντες οἱ λαοί! (Ψαλμός 116:1)
Praise the Lord, all Nations; laud Him, all peoples! (Psalm 116:1, LXX)
As we gather with family and friends to celebrate our National holiday of the
Fourth of July, let us all pause to give thanks for our American democracy. Like every form of governing the πόλις, it will always be less than perfect, for the human beings who conduct the affairs of state and the rule of law are imperfect as well. But let us rejoice that what we have witnessed in our land – from coast to coast – is a willingness to confront the injustices of past and present, and to find common ground to address them. This is the genius of a democracy. This is the genius of a people seeking a “more perfect union.” This is the genius of America. Our national blessings do not come without responsibilities. We have a civic vocation to participate in public life, regardless of our personal political views. The Church has its own moral and ethical ground, but we recognize the civil rights of others to disagree with us. Grateful for the religious freedom guaranteed by the Bill of Rights, we must make our case in a spirit of love and acceptance of others, even those whose opinions – minority or majority – strike us as wrong. There must be the same rights for all Americans, or there is no safety of rights for any American. Beloved Faithful, we are so very blessed to live in this ‘land of the free and home of the brave,’ which has been defended by the sacrifice of so many. We Orthodox Christians are relatively few in America, but we should have an outsize influence – for justice, for equality – to speak for the voiceless and advocate the downtrodden. This is our way of giving back and of giving thanks. Together, let us help to make of our Nation a place that does, indeed, praise the Lord in word and deed. Thus, all citizens shall be happy and blessed; for, as it says in the Psalms: “Blessed are the people who know
jubilation” (Psalm 88:15, LXX).
A happy Fourth of July to all!
With paternal love in Christ Jesus, + Elpidophoros

Really, Your Eminence?

by Lawrence B. Wheeler, B.A., M.Div.

It was a balmy summer day in midtown Manhattan when His Eminence Archbishop Elpidophoros stepped into St. Bartholomew’s Church. He was on Park Avenue between 50th and 51st Streets, where the grand edifice sits, imposing and Byzantine, yet dwarfed by the Waldorf Astoria Hotel. According to the Orthodox Church calendar, it was the feast day of Ss. Bartholomew & Barnabas, which fell on a Friday this year, the eleventh day of June 2021. The archbishop and his entourage had come to St. Bart’s, as the parish is fondly known, to commemorate the name day of Patriarch Bartholomew, his ecclesiastical superior in Constantinople – current-day Istanbul. The venerable patriarch had now sat on the far-away throne for thirty years – longer than any of his predecessors. An auspicious occasion it was – one worthy of a singular celebration for a primate termed the Ecumenical Patriarch. Undiscerning Westerners consider him to be the Eastern version of the Roman Pope, a claim to which the primates of the other Orthodox jurisdictions, especially the Patriarch of Moscow, do not subscribe.

Except for the fact that St. Bart’s is an Episcopal Church, there would have been no cause for alarm at the setting, and except for the fact that St. Bartholomew’s Day fell in the month of June, also known as “Pride Month”, there would have been no cause for alarm at the timing of the occasion. As it was, however, over the west door and next to the Stars and Stripes drooped a rainbow flag, which symbolizes the hubris of the homosexual movement, now having burgeoned into the LGBTQ+Whatever-in-Hell-Suits-You Movement.

Scheduled for the following week was a Zoom lecture by a woman who claims to have “transitioned” into manhood. Her (his?) name is Austen Hartke, who on Sunday, June 20 would contend that there is enough wiggle room in Holy Writ to make it appear as though the “gender identity” of transgendered people was something that God had conjured up, or at least tolerated. The clear reading of the biblical creation account is: “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.” (Gen. 1:27) But, according to Hartke that “ain’t necessarily so”,  as George Gershwin might have crooned. The antiquated idea that a person is either a man or a woman seems to be too binary to the progressive Christian mind.

Pseudo-theology is nothing new to the Episcopal Church. Formerly named the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A. (PECUSA) the Episcopal Church now uses TEC as its acronym. Let’s review the highlights of its recent history, specifically its controversial firsts in clerical ordinations:

In 1974, rogue bishops, none with jurisdiction, disobeyed Church Canon and gathered in Philadelphia to illegally ordain eleven women to the presbyterate, aka priesthood. Their illicit act was ratified at the General Convention of 1976. One must note that, in 1944, during the imperial Japanese occupation, one woman had been permitted to function as a priest for the Anglicans in Hong Kong, but this ordination of the “Philadelphia Eleven” created quite a stir in our country. To conservative Anglo-Catholics, it was unseemly that a woman, whose very body was created for the life-giving grace of childbirth, should ever offer the unbloody sacrifice of the mass, a fulfillment of the antiquated Hebrew priesthood of the actual sacrifice of beasts for man’s sins. Neither is a woman by nature qualified to stand at the altar “in place of and as a type of Christ”, the God-man. As far as the evangelical Episcopalians were concerned, the innovation was simply not biblical, for St. Paul had said, “I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.” (I Tim. 2:12) Strike one. Either way, ordaining women was liable to divide the Anglican Communion. Strike one.

In Massachusetts in 1988, a divorced black woman who had never attended seminary, Barbara Harris, was elected the first female bishop in Anglican history. Her controversial consecration triggered the formation of an independent group of conservatives, the Episcopal Synod of America. Never in the history of any of the three supposèd “branches” of the one, holy catholic and apostolic Church: Orthodox, Roman or Anglican had any woman been elevated to the ranks of the episcopacy. By this time, there were many divorced people but few African Americans in the waspish TEC, and very few of the clergy had missed a seminary education. So, despite the fact that she did not represent a major slice of the Episcopal demographic, the considerations that Harris was a divorced black person without an M.Div. were only minor complaints compared to the unavoidable fact that she was a woman. It was this that caused the most consternation. Strike two.

Fifteen years later, in 2003 another bombshell was dropped. That was the election of the first openly-partnered homosexual priest, Vicky Imogene Robinson – a man with a woman’s name – to the office of bishop coadjutor of the Diocese of New Hampshire. Bp. Robinson was legally married when it became legal, but he and his “husband” would ultimately get a divorce in 2014. Gene Robinson’s sexual lifestyle utterly disgusted a major swath of Episcopalians. Vast numbers of them could not bring themselves to respect him as a member of the college of bishops. The Bible speaks clearly about God’s prohibition of homosexual practice:

“Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination.” (Lev. 18:22 KJV) In contemporary English that is: “Do not practice homosexuality, having sex with another man as with a woman. It is a detestable sin.” (TEV) For those who reject the moral authority of the Hebrew law, there is the clear judgment from St. Paul in the Christian Scriptures:

Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen. For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature: And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet. (Rom 1:24-27)

This one action of episcopal consecration infuriated any remaining traditional Episcopalians, who then turned in their tens of thousands to breakaway Anglican denominations like CANA, the Convocation of Anglicans in North America, supported by the large Nigerian Church. Strike three.

In 2006, Katherine Jefferts-Schori became the first female primate of any Anglican province. The presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church does not have jurisdiction over a diocese, but that person wields a lot of moral authority throughout the denomination. Over the next nine years, Pres. Bp. Schori ruled with an iron fist. Along with her sycophant diocesan bishops, she defrocked any remaining clergymen who refused on the grounds of the Church’s own Scripture and Tradition to condone the ordination of women or homosexuals to the major orders of clergy. “At her direction, the national church initiated lawsuits against departing dioceses and parishes, with some $22 million spent as of 2011. She also established a policy that church properties were not to be sold to departing congregations.” (Wikipedia) Deep indeed was the vindictiveness that Jefferts-Schori demonstrated during her primacy of the Episcopal Church. Four whole dioceses left TEC in 2009, but since the Church canons had been changed to stipulate that all diocesan and parochial real estate was held in trust for the national Church, nearly all of the renegades had to part with their earthly treasure to carry on as best they could. South Carolina also was forced to leave in 2012, since Bp. Lawrence was bullied and persecuted by the national church for his faithfulness to Tradition. Bp. Love of Albany was even put on trial in an ecclesiastical court for maintaining moral standards in his diocese in upstate New York.

A resolution of the general convention in 2018 made trial rites for “marriage equality” available to all homosexual Episcopalians, regardless of the diocesan bishop’s view of the matter. This caused the worldwide primates to suspend TEC’s full participation in the Anglican Communion for three years until 2018. Strike four.

It is this radical, despotic TEC to which St. Bart’s belongs so enthusiastically. Surely Abp. Elpidophoros was well aware of TEC’s tumultuous recent past when, ignoring his own Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in Manhattan, and passing over any other Greek Orthodox churches in his see, he went a few city blocks out of his way to select a parish named St. Bartholomew for the day’s festivities. Was he totally ignorant of the radical policies executed by the leadership of the TEC?

Surely the archbishop must have known that many refugees from ostracism by the TEC have sought a home in the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese (GOA or GOARCH) where are embraced right doctrine, right worship and right practice. How can the venerable chief shepherd of the American Church not have known what a scandal it might be to his far-flung flock to see the archbishop darken the doors of a radical parish of such an apostate denomination? Why did he take another strike at the invisible wedge that threatens to divide GOARCH from the other Orthodox jurisdictions? “Abstain from all appearance of evil.” (I Thess. 5:22) should have been the watchword of the day.

This was scandal. “Scandal’ comes from the Greek word for stumbling block, an apt metaphor for the experience of the former Episcopalian and Anglican converts who thought they had been walking a smooth and straight path on their journey in GOARCH, but have now stumbled at the recent scandalous news.

St. Ignatius said, “Where the bishop is, there is the Church.” Catholic and Orthodox ecclesiology considers all bishops to be successors to the apostles and each has a long genealogy to prove his apostolic succession. The public acts that the bishop performs, he performs as an apostle εις τόπον και τύπον Χριστού (“in place of and as a type of Christ”, as noted above). Abp. Elpidophoros is the head of the Greek Church in this land, and whatever he does as archbishop he does as representative of Christ Himself.

St. Ignatius’ words imply that, in a metaphysical sense, the Church travels with the bishop. Whither he goes, we all go. Abp. Elpidophoros went to St. Bartholomew’s Episcopal Church ahead of all of us in the Greek Orthodox Church. In a sense, we all passed under that rainbow flag, and served the Divine Liturgy in that nave where the progressive “gospel” of sexual inclusiveness is enthusiastically preached. Preached though it may be, that is not the Gospel at all, but rather a false gospel of capitulation to the zeitgeist, the spirit of the age. This false gospel does not demand the hard work of repentance, absolution and the application of the virtues, but one that promotes the surrender of the will to the passions of the flesh. It promotes the misdirection of carnal desire, calling it “sexual orientation”, and the recent normalization of transsexuality, calling it “gender identity” .

Nevertheless, the arrogant Episcopal Church forges on, and uber-liberal parishes like St. Bart’s relentlessly advance the front of the perverted sexual revolution. So, the salient question is again: Why did Abp. Elpidophoros make a point of selecting this flagrantly heterodox parish for the day’s celebration? He intimated the answer to that question in the homily that he gave at the end of the liturgy: “It is precisely because of the ecumenicity of the First Throne of Orthodoxy, and the faithful and inspiring ecumenical ministry of our Patriarch.” The patriarch’s oikumene has a much narrower scope than is claimed by the Ecumenical Patriarch. He may imply that his patriarchal authority extends beyond his own Constantinopolitan bailiwick, and it may indeed include his eparchies in Australia and America, etc. but it ends there. The patriarch does not hold sway over the other local (read: national) Orthodox churches, whether patriarchates or metropolises, nor does he represent any of them to the Roman Catholic Church or to any other ecclesial or religious body, nor to any secular government.

“As Orthodox Christians, we are not about exclusivity, but about authenticity. We say with the Lord Jesus Christ, “whoever is not against us is for us!”, claimed the archbishop in his homily, quoting Mark 9:40. The Orthodox Church is certainly authentic, but TEC is counterfeit. TEC is not “for us” but against us and against Christ Himself! They have torn down every boundary that protects sexual sinners from eternal judgment, refusing to guard the morès of tradition, and not only do they condone sin, but they actually promote it. That was most clearly on display at St. Bart’s. It is paramount that our leadership not be deceived and blithely venture where angels fear to tread. If the symbolic act which Abp. Elpidophoros performed on June 11 is treated as the indication of some new policy for GOARCH, then it may behoove those of more sensitive conscience to reexamine our church loyalty. We simply cannot stand idly by. There can be no rapprochement with an impenitent TEC unless they display a clear and public metanoia. Whether Apb. Elpidophoros’ shocking action made on St. Bartholomew’s Day was taken out of ignorance, or intrigue or out of defiance it is hard to know. Nevertheless, the effect on many in his national flock, especially the Episcopalian converts, was harmful. He should not have done what he did.

In January of 2020, before the pandemic hit, the archbishop had flown all the way out to Hawai’i for his first archpastoral visit to our congregation in the fair city of Honolulu. He concelebrated a hierarchical liturgy at our Cathedral of Ss. Constantine & Helen with Metropolitan Gerasimos. It was my privilege as an officer of the parish council to dine with both hierarchs on two occasions over that weekend: one formal and one intimate. I found our new archbishop to be eminently approachable, so I asked him some of the inconvenient questions of the day. He responded graciously, so I felt at ease to voice my private disagreement with him on certain topics, and I listened to his rational rebuttals. As we were leaving the restaurant, the Top of Waikiki, the archbishop even praised me in front of the rest of the party for asking the right questions. I had a good first impression of Abp. Elpidophoros at the time, but as an Orthodox believer in his jurisdiction, particularly as a former Episcopalian, I must declare that his use of St. Bartholomew’s Episcopal Church for a hierarchical liturgy was more than disappointing. If it were possible, I wish that he could undo what he has done. God alone is our judge, but I pray that the Archbishop will repent of his actions and stay true to the traditions and morality of our beloved Orthodox Church.